hiring help

School districts struggle when hiring new teachers. A new study suggests L.A. has found a better way

PHOTO: Tennessee Department of Education

Every spring and summer, America’s school districts face a critical challenge: hiring a batch of new teachers.

For some districts, the first problem is finding enough educators to fill their classrooms. But for many others, the central issue is choosing among the candidates — and administrators are left to develop their own systems for using résumés and test scores to predict who will do the best job.

New research suggests that Los Angeles, at least, has found a better way.

In 2014, Los Angeles Unified School District redesigned its hiring process to carefully cull teaching applicants. Each prospective teacher gets several scores for measures like college GPA, a sample teaching lesson, an interview, and professional references. Candidates who earn 80 out of 100 points get passed along for consideration to school principals. (Principals can still request an applicant who scored below that benchmark to be added to the hiring pool.)

The paper, published through the group CALDER at the American Institutes for Research, found that teachers who scored higher made a bigger impact on student achievement, scored higher on the district’s evaluation system, and were absent for fewer days.

Los Angeles’ screening tests “appear to accurately discern several aspects of teacher quality,” write the researchers, Paul Bruno of the University of Southern California and Katharine Strunk of Michigan State University. “The district may therefore benefit from its policy of excluding most low-performing applicants from employment eligibility.”  

The study is limited to teachers who were actually hired by the district, so it’s impossible to know how teachers screened out by the system — likely, the lowest-scorers — would have done in the classroom. Instead, the researchers compared the performance of the teachers who were hired with relatively high or low scores.

The differences were statistically significant but usually small. For instance, a teacher who scored substantially above average was about half as likely to receive a low evaluation rating (though only about 4 percent of all teachers fell into that category).

The researchers also examined whether schools benefited from the new hiring system. Indeed, it seemed to lead to small test score bumps in schools with higher shares of newly hired teachers, relative to what would be expected under the old system.

One consideration the study didn’t address was the impact on teacher diversity. Other screening systems — like teacher certification rules — tend to disproportionately exclude candidates of color.

The research is the latest in a string of recent studies showing that the way schools make hiring decisions can make a small but meaningful impact on students — and that many districts could do a better job at it.

When teachers are hired after the first day of school, students have been shown to do worse on tests at the end of the year. Still, some large districts had hundreds of vacant teaching positions at the start of this academic year. (Los Angeles, notably, had very few.)

Other districts, like Washington, DC and Spokane, Washington, have also created screening processes that predict teacher effectiveness.

Yet recent research suggests that more districts are actually decentralizing hiring decisions so that principals have more control over which teachers they take on. This may help ensure a good fit between teachers and a school, something research shows is important.

At the same time, the Los Angeles study highlights the potential benefits of a more standardized approach. Principals still make the ultimate hire, but have to sort through fewer applicants to get there.

Paul Bruno, one of the study’s authors, said finding the right balance — between autonomy and centralization — is a key open question. “That’s something we don’t know a whole lot about: how best to make that tradeoff,” he said.

Top teacher

Franklin educator is Tennessee’s 2018-19 Teacher of the Year

PHOTO: TDOE
Melissa Miller leads her students in a learning game at Franklin Elementary School in Franklin Special School District in Williamson County. Miller is Tennessee's 2018-19 Teacher of the Year.

A first-grade teacher in Franklin is Tennessee’s Teacher of the Year.

Melissa Miller

Melissa Miller, who works at Franklin Elementary School, received the 2018-19 honor for excellence in the classroom Thursday evening during a banquet in Nashville.

A teacher for 19 years, she is National Board Certified, serves as a team leader and mentor at her school, and trains her colleagues on curriculum and technology in Franklin’s city school district in Williamson County, just south of Nashville. She will represent Tennessee in national competition and serve on several working groups with the state education department.

Miller was one of nine finalists statewide for the award, which has been presented to a Tennessee public school teacher most every year since 1960 as a way to promote respect and appreciation for the profession. The finalists were chosen based on scoring from a panel of educators; three regional winners were narrowed down following interviews.

In addition to Miller, who also won in Middle Tennessee, the state recognized Lori Farley, a media specialist at North City Elementary School in Athens City Schools, in East Tennessee. Michael Robinson, a high school social studies teacher at Houston High School in Germantown Municipal School District, was this year’s top teacher in West Tennessee.

Education Commissioner Candice McQueen praised the finalists for leading their students to impressive academic gains and growth. She noted that “teachers are the single most important factor in improving students’ achievement.”

Last year’s statewide winner was Cicely Woodard, an eighth-grade math teacher in Nashville who has since moved to a middle school in the same Franklin district as Miller.

You can learn more about Tennessee’s Teacher of the Year program here.

PSA

Have you thought about teaching? Colorado teachers union sells the profession in new videos

PHOTO: Colorado Education Association

There are a lot of factors contributing to a shortage of teachers in Colorado and around the nation. One of them — with potentially long-term consequences — is that far fewer people are enrolling in or graduating from teacher preparation programs. A recent poll found that more than half of respondents, citing low pay and lack of respect, would not want their children to become teachers.

Earlier this year, one middle school teacher told Chalkbeat the state should invest in public service announcements to promote the profession.

“We could use some resources in Colorado to highlight how attractive teaching is, for the intangibles,” said Mary Hulac, who teaches English in the Greeley-Evans district. “I tell my students every day, this is the best job.

“You learn every day as a teacher. I’m a language arts teacher. When we talk about themes, and I hear a story through another student’s perspective, it’s always exciting and new.”

The Colorado Education Association, the state’s largest teachers union, has brought some resources to help get that message out with a series of videos aimed at “up-and-coming professionals deciding on a career.” A spokesman declined to say how much the union was putting into the ad buy.

The theme of the ads is: “Change a life. Change the world.”

“Nowhere but in the education profession can a person have such a profound impact on the lives of students,” association President Amie Baca-Oehlert said in a press release. “We want to show that teaching is a wonderful and noble profession.”

As the union notes, “Opportunities to teach in Colorado are abundant.”

One of the ads features 2018 Colorado Teacher of the Year Christina Randle.

“Are you ready to be a positive role model for kids and have a direct impact on the future?” Randle asks.

Another features an education student who was inspired by her own teachers and a 20-year veteran talking about how much she loves her job.

How would you sell the teaching profession to someone considering their career options? Let us know at co.tips@chalkbeat.org.