test scores

New York City’s math and English test scores increased slightly. Here’s the breakdown.

Students take an AP exam at Bronx Science, one of the city's specialized high schools.

The proportion of New York City students who passed state exams in math and English this past school year ticked up slightly, according to statewide test scores released Tuesday.

The latest results show the share of city students who passed the English exam jumped by 2.6 percentage points to 40.6 percent. The share of New York City students who passed math increased by 1.4 percentage points to 37.8 percent.

New York City’s growth on English scores was higher than the state’s increase of 1.9 percentage points. In math, New York City also rose more than the state, which saw an increase of 1.1 percentage points.

The bump in grades 3-8 test scores is far less dramatic than last year’s, but is more likely to be an accurate barometer of student learning.

Unlike last year, when state officials said changes to the tests made year-over-year comparisons unreliable, top education officials said this year’s gains show improvements in learning.

“The test scores we’re announcing today are a positive sign that we continue to steadily head in the right direction,” said the state’s education commissioner, MaryEllen Elia.

Observers have been eager to see whether more or fewer students opted out of the state exams. Statewide, 19 percent of students refused to take each test, down two percentage points from 2016. In New York City, 3 percent of students opted out of English exams and 3.5 percent opted out of math. A total of 17,234 students, or 4.0 percent, opted out of either exam. That’s higher than last year, when 2.4 percent of city students sat out the English exams and 2.76 percent opted out of math.

Despite the increase in New York City, Elia said that overall, a decrease in the opt-out rate is a positive sign for the state. Elia and state officials have been trying to address concerns over a perceived over-reliance on testing, evaluations and standards.

“It’s encouraging to see the test refusal starting to decline,” Elia said. “I think it’s also important to note that proficiency rates represent only the students who took the test.”

That could be particularly important for comparing New York City’s pass rates to the state’s as a whole. Though New York City topped the state’s pass rate of 39.8 percent in English and were slightly lower than the state’s pass rate of 40.2 percent in math, it is difficult to know how the additional students who refused the test would have affected the state averages.

Students who refused the exams were much more likely to be white, and much less likely to be poor or English learners, according to state officials.

In New York City, all racial groups made progress on English and math tests, and the so-called achievement gap between white students and those of color did not narrow significantly. On English tests, for instance, black and Hispanic students’ pass rates increased by 2.3 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively, while white students increased by 2.1 points. In math, white students posted slightly larger gains than their black and Hispanic peers.

“This is based on generations of disparity” said Mayor Bill de Blasio, when asked about the achievement gap. “That doesn’t, for a moment, make this any less urgent. We are just clear-eyed that it’s going to be a long battle. What’s good is we’re seeing consistent progress,” de Blasio said.

The pass rates for current English language learners increased to 5.6 percent in English and 14.7 percent in math. But the pass rates for students who were ever English language learners were significantly higher at 49.1 percent in English and 49.7 percent in math. In both cases, the city’s pass rates surpassed the state’s.

The number of students with disabilities who passed English rose by 1.3 percentage points to 10.7 percent, and in math by .4 percentage points to 11.8 percent. Again, these were slightly higher than the state’s.

Meanwhile, the uptick in New York City’s charter school test scores was once again higher than that of district schools. Charter schools’ pass rate on English rose 5.2 percentage points to 48.2 percent. Their pass rate on math increased 3 percentage points to 51.7 percent. Success Academy, the city’s largest charter network, far surpassed those averages with 84 percent of students passing English and 95 percent of students passing math.

De Blasio celebrated the city’s results. “This is a good news day,” he said, “because so many educators in this city working more closely than ever with parents have found ways to reach our young people more effectively.”

Though state officials consider the test scores this year comparable to last year’s results, the stability will not last long. Next year, the state plans to shorten testing length by two days and is also in the process of creating and implementing new learning standards.

Still, Elia said test scores will provide useful information over time — particularly if the state is focused on trends.

“I do think it’s reasonable to use test data to give an indication of how we’re doing,” Elia said.

open questions

Segregation, struggling schools, ‘a larger vision’: What Councilman Mark Treyger is watching as NYC gets a new schools chief

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
City Councilman Mark Treyger is chair of the council's education committee.

As Mayor Bill de Blasio prepares to choose a new leader for the nation’s largest school system, no one is watching that decision more closely than Mark Treyger.

Treyger, a former history teacher who was recently named chairman of the city council’s education committee, will be responsible for holding the new schools chief accountable. In that role, the Brooklyn Democrat plans to support many of the de Blasio initiatives that the next chancellor will carry out — from expanded preschool to more social services in schools.

But Treyger also has some tough questions for the mayor and his yet-to-be-named schools chief. How do they plan to reduce school segregation? What is the mayor’s overarching vision for the school system? And must he choose the chancellor behind closed doors?

“I do believe that the best decisions are the ones where you involve critical stakeholders,” Treyger told Chalkbeat in a recent interview.

Below are some of the education issues that Treyger said he’ll be paying close attention to as de Blasio prepares to hand the reins of the school system over to a new chancellor.

1. What’s the larger vision for the school system?

Free pre-K has been de Blasio’s signature education accomplishment, but he’s also rolled out an assortment of lesser-known initiatives.

Many of them fall under the banner of “Equity and Excellence for All,” including efforts to make Advanced Placement classes available to all high-school students by 2021 and computer-science courses available to all students by 2025. Some critics have pointed out that many of those programs won’t be fully phased in until after de Blasio leaves. Others — including Treyger — wonder what they all add up to.

“It’s been a commendable beginning,” he said. “But I’m looking for a larger vision.”

On a practical level, Treyger also questioned whether the education department has laid the groundwork to roll out some of those initiatives. He said will work to make sure all schools have the infrastructure they need, such as reliable internet service and appropriate technology, to make sure they can offer courses like computer science.

“How can you have a conversation about computers,” he said, “when the lights don’t even work?”

2. Why not make the chancellor search public?

De Blasio has insisted that he won’t “crowdsource” the search for a new schools chief — despite calls for public input from a chorus of parents and experts.

Treyger thinks a compromise is possible: Let the mayor choose chancellor candidates, but then give the city council the power to vet the candidates during public hearings before signing off on the mayor’s pick.

“I believe that we should be open to moving towards a process where the city council has advise-and-consent power,” he said, adding that the legislature should consider altering the mayoral control law next year to give city lawmakers that power.

3. How serious is this administration about tackling school segregation?

School integration was not on de Blasio’s agenda when he came into office.

But after a grassroots movement of parents and educators called on the mayor to address the school system’s severe racial and socioeconomic segregation, he took some small steps in that direction. The education department released a “school diversity” plan last year, and has launched an integration-aimed admissions program at a few dozen schools and in one Manhattan district.

However, Treyger thinks the city can and must do more — including aligning school enrollment, zoning, and housing policies to work towards the same goal of integration.

“If we’re serious about addressing [segregation], we have to know the difference between managing the problem and actually solving it,” he said. “I think that we’ve seen, thus far, more management than actually solving.”

4. What’s next for the Renewal program?

The mayor’s $582 million “Renewal” program for struggling schools is at a crossroads.

De Blasio made a big bet that his administration could quickly rehabilitate 94 low-performing schools by giving them extra social services and academic support. But the program has achieved mixed results, and now the education department is planning to shutter eight Renewal schools next year — part of the largest round of school closures under de Blasio.

Meanwhile, another 21 schools that officials say have made significant progress will slowly transition out of the program.

Treyger’s first oversight hearing as education chairman, set for next week, will focus on the program. He has spent the last few weeks visiting schools in the program and says he wants to understand what the city’s future plans are for supporting those schools. And he wants to be sure that if struggling schools improve enough to leave the program, their extra support won’t suddenly be cut. (The education department has committed to maintaining the full budget allocation they receive through the city’s funding formula and extra social services for the 21 schools that are improving enough to leave the program.)

“We will not be happy,” he said, “if we learn that a school that is improving or turning things around — that its reward is a funding cut.”

Indiana's 2018 legislative session

Indiana has thousands of foster kids, but knows little about their education. This bill could change that.

PHOTO: Meghan Mangrum

Foster children in Indiana – and across the country – likely won’t graduate from high school, and very few of them will go on to college. But foster children are rarely included in state-level discussions about how Indiana is educating its kids.

The Indiana Department of Education has very little data on how the 30,000 children in foster care perform in school, a group close to the size of the state’s largest school district. Indiana saw the second steepest climb in the the nation of foster children between 2012 and 2016, with an increase of 60 percent.

To identify the issues that are holding foster students back, lawmakers and advocates are proposing a bill that that would require the education department and the Department of Child Services to share data on foster students in Indiana. So far, House Bill 1314 has seen broad bipartisan support.

“Youth in foster care really have no one speaking for them,” said Brent Kent, CEO of Indiana Connected By 25, a foster child advocacy group. “The state is their parent … we will see for the first time, foster youth side-by-side with other peer groups and how they are performing.”

The bill, authored by Granger Republican Rep. Dale DeVon, would set up data sharing between the state’s education and child services departments. It would also require that the Indiana State Board of Education release an annual report about foster youth education.

About half the foster children in the country will graduate from high school by age 19, and only about 3 percent go on to complete college, according to a report from the Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative. In Indiana, the numbers of children in foster care have swelled in part because of the opioid crisis.

Kent said collecting data is a huge leap forward for Indiana. It doesn’t sound innovative, but few states do it.  Indiana already reports student data separated by race, ethnicity, income level, gender and age, among other factors — if the bill becomes law, foster care status would be included.

“No one ever maliciously leaves out foster youth,” Kent said. “We just never thoughtfully include them.”

The foster care data wouldn’t factor into state letter grades as some other subgroup data does. The department of education testified in favor of the bill.

Demetrees Hutchins, a researcher from Indiana University and a former foster child, said it’s “deplorable” how few foster children make it to college. She said this bill can help state agencies coordinate their work so these students aren’t being ignored.

“Implementing this bill makes those in the child welfare system’s job that much easier. It makes those in the education world’s job that much easier,” Hutchins said. “Because we would know where the problems are … and use that data to inform policy- and decision-making.”

Kent said he’s realistic — he doesn’t think this bill will solve every problem foster children face. But it’s a start. The bill passed the House unanimously and is up for consideration in the Senate in the coming weeks.

“Our goal was just to bring some attention to it,” Kent said. “The work is not done closing the achievement gap for subgroups, but … until we know these things, we can’t address them.”