Welcome 2018

As Gov. Cuomo lays out his 2018 agenda, here’s what that could mean for New York’s schools

PHOTO: Kevin P. Coughlin/Office of Governor Andrew M. Cuomo
Governor Andrew Cuomo delivers his State of the State address in 2017.

Gov. Andrew Cuomo will lay out his 2018 policy agenda during his annual State of the State address Wednesday, which coincides with the start of this year’s legislative season.

Unlike in years past, education isn’t expected to top Cuomo’s legislative to-do list — especially amid the possibility of deep school-funding cuts.

Leading up to the speech in Albany, the governor has previewed 20 proposals — two of which focus on education. One involves a five-point plan to combat hunger in schools, while the other includes measures to help students who take out loans to pay for college.

Those proposals, however, are a far cry from his splashy plan last year to provide free in-state college tuition, or his efforts to more closely tie teacher evaluations to test scores, which sparked a heated policy battle during the 2015 legislative session.

His scaled-back education agenda this year comes as advocates and policymakers worry that politics in Washington and budget woes in Albany will leave less money for New York schools this year.

“There are no hot-button issues other than the funding of public education — which is the elephant in the room,” said Michael Borges, executive director of the New York State Association of School Business Officials. “You can’t do anything else without proper funding.”

Here’s the big questions hanging over Cuomo’s agenda, which marks the beginning of the wrangling between him and lawmakers that will result in a budget deal later this year.

Will Cuomo continue his retreat from aggressive education changes?

During Cuomo’s address three years ago, he famously called teacher ratings “baloney,” kicking off a bruising battle with the teachers unions that resulted in an unpopular plan to evaluate educators.

Since then, he has mostly backed away from major K-12 education initiatives. He retreated from his stance on teacher evaluations and sat by as the Board of Regents placed a moratorium on the most controversial aspects of the law. He has since thrown his weight behind the union-backed strategy of turning struggling schools into community hubs that offer social services and after-school programs, and has delved into higher education with the “Excelsior” scholarship.

As Cuomo prepares to run for re-election this year and is considered a candidate for president in 2020, he is unlikely to push controversial education plans that will spark a new round of battles.

On the issue of teacher evaluations, the Board of Regents has halted the use of student test scores in teacher ratings until until 2019. Bob Lowry, deputy director of the New York State Council of School Superintendents, said he would be surprised if the governor revisited the issue this year.

“But,” he added, “I’m not prepared to rule it out either.”

How will funding changes affect this year’s agenda?

New York is bracing for a trio of school-funding challenges that could rein in Cuomo’s ability to boost education spending this year.

The state faces a projected $4.4 billion state budget deficit even as the $1.5 trillion tax overhaul signed into law by President Trump last month is expected to hit tax-heavy states like New York especially hard. At the same time, the Trump administration and Republican lawmakers are calling for major cuts in federal spending.

In response, New York’s Board of Regents, who set education policy, have requested a more modest budget increase this year. Meanwhile, state Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan, a Republican, said in a statement that “spending restraint should be a top priority.” And Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie, a Democrat, cited funding threats from Washington as a top concern heading into the 2018 legislative season.

Cuomo is only unveiling his policy priorities Wednesday. His proposed budget, which will include the total amount he wants the state to spend on education, will come later.

Will Cuomo promote charter schools?

Last year, charter-school funding was a major sticking point in the budget process.

The showdown pitted charter-school advocates — who said they were owed a $1,500 per pupil spending increase — against the Democratic-controlled Assembly. In a compromise, the final deal increased charter funding by $500 per pupil and allows charter funding to grow along with district-school funding starting in the 2018-19 school year.

Even after the deal, advocates say charter schools still get less money than traditional ones — and are pushing for increased charter spending this year.

“I think it’s a fundamental unfairness,” said James Merriman, CEO of the New York City Charter School Center. “Should [parents] be penalized if the public school that works for their child is a charter?”

Meanwhile, advocates for district school funding argue that schools across New York State are still owed billions in education dollars under the terms of a school funding lawsuit.

What will happen in higher education?

The centerpiece of Cuomo’s 2017 speech was a plan to provide free tuition to the state’s public colleges and universities for students from low-income families.

This year, Cuomo has signaled he wants to go down a similar albeit less flashy track. The proposal he previewed would add new loan protections for students, including a requirement that colleges inform students annually of their loan amounts and a law that would prevent New Yorkers from losing their professional licenses if they fall behind on their student loans.

His school meal plan would require state colleges to have food pantries.

The proposals indicate the governor wants to mount a longer campaign for college affordability. After the state created the Excelsior scholarship last year, many advocates argued there was much more work to do to battle student debt and help low-income students pay for college.

Signed and sealed

Federal officials deny New York testing waivers but sign off on its plan for judging schools

PHOTO: Monica Disare
State Education Commissioner MaryEllen Elia and Board of Regents Chancellor Betty Rosa

New York cannot create special testing rules for students with disabilities or those still learning English, the U.S. education department said Tuesday.

The decision to deny New York the testing waivers it had sought came on the same day that the department signed off on the state’s plan to evaluate and support schools under the new federal education law. The plan, required by the federal Every Student Succeeds Act, was the product of more than a year of writing and revision by state officials and over a dozen public hearings.

The federal education department approved most of New York’s vision which aims to move beyond test scores when evaluating schools and places new emphasis on whether schools have the resources they need though they required some changes, which the department first proposed in feedback last month.

One of the revisions affects the way schools are rated when many students refuse to take the state exams. Meanwhile, the federal reviewers did not appear to require changes that could have lowered the state’s graduation rate, which some experts had said was possible under the new law.

Here’s what you need to know about the federal government’s feedback to New York’s plan:

1.) Two testing waivers were rejected

At the same time that New York submitted its ESSA plan, it also requested three testing-related waivers — two of which federal officials shot down on Tuesday.

One of the rejected waivers would have allowed students with significant cognitive disabilities to take tests below their grade level, which New York officials said would have resulted in more accurate measures of their progress. However, special-education advocates and the New York City education department had raised alarms about that request, saying it could lower standards for those students and potentially violate federal law. In denying the request, the U.S. education department appeared to validate those concerns.

The other denied waiver had asked that schools not be held accountable for the English test scores of newly arrived immigrants until after those students had been in the U.S. for three years. Without that exemption, school evaluations will factor in the English scores of students who are still learning that language after their second year in the country.

New York did, however, receive approval for one waiver to allow middle-school students to skip the state’s annual math or science exams if they instead sit for the Regents exams in those subjects, which are required to earn a typical high-school diploma.

2.) A change for schools with high opt-out rates

New York must treat students who boycott state tests as having failed them when evaluating schools’ performance though state officials don’t expect that to trigger interventions for high-performing schools with high opt-out rates.

In its ESSA plan, New York officials had wanted to make sure that schools were not penalized if a large number of students sit out the state exams — as 19 percent of students across the state did last year. To that end, they created two accountability measures — one that counted boycotted exams against a school’s passing rate and another that did not — and allowed schools to use the higher of the two ratings.

But the U.S. education department blocked that methodology, instead requiring the state to treat boycotted exams as the equivalent of failed tests when judging their academic performance. (They are still allowed to use the other metric to evaluate schools, just not under strict federal guidelines for what count as academic measures.)

State education department officials said Wednesday that the changes will like result in slightly lower ratings for schools with high opt-out rates. However, they said they do not expect those schools to face serious consequences as long as they perform well on other metrics.

Lisa Rudley, a founding member of New York State Allies for Public Education, which helped organize the opt-out movement in New York, said she expects the state to protect schools where many students boycott the exams.

Otherwise, she predicted, “There’s going to be outrage.”

3.) New York’s graduation rate is in the clear for now

Federal reviewers could have forced the state to lower its graduation rate, but they appear to have decided against that drastic step.

ESSA requires states to include only diplomas earned by a “preponderance” of students when calculating their graduation rates. Several experts thought New York’s “local diploma,” a less rigorous diploma awarded to only about four percent of students, did not meet that requirement.

If federal officials had agreed, the state could have been forced to recalculate its graduation rate and possibly eliminate some newly created options that allow more students to graduate with local diplomas. However, the officials appear to have let New York’s graduation rate stand with the local diploma in place.

on the market

Albany to Boston? New York education official Angelica Infante-Green in the running to lead Massachusetts schools

PHOTO: Chiefs for Change
Angelica Infante-Green is a finalist to run schools in Massachusetts.

One of New York state’s top education officials is a finalist to take over the leaderless state education department in Massachusetts.

Angelica Infante-Green is one of three finalists to succeed Mitchell Chester, the Massachusetts education commissioner who died unexpectedly in June 2017, according to the Boston Herald.

Infante-Green is a deputy commissioner overseeing instruction in New York’s public schools, where she has recently spearheaded the state’s efforts integrate schools by race and class. Before arriving in Albany in 2013, she oversaw New York City’s efforts to serve to English language learners. In that position, she was responsible for expanding the city’s bilingual and dual-language programs and making sure that immigrant families landed in the best schools for their children.

Infante-Green is the daughter of immigrants from the Dominican Republic, a graduate of New York City schools, and a Teach For America alumna.

When she was teaching, Infante-Green felt “a little frustration in the classroom because there were policies that were being made without really knowing what was happening in the classroom,” she said in a video interview with Chiefs for Change, a national coalition of state and district education leaders that advocates for policy changes to help students. “So I decided that I was going to bring that drive to create change at a different level.”

Infante-Green is part of Chiefs for Change’s “Future Chiefs” program, which aims to cultivate a diverse pipeline of education leaders. She is also is a public school parent of two children; her son attends the first-ever dual-language program for students with autism, which she helped launch.

In an interview with Education Post last year, Infante-Green reflected on how her experiences as a parent, educator, and administrator inform her outlook on education policy.

“I’ve always had a passion for equity because of my own experience. I know firsthand what it’s like to be in a school where there isn’t much support and expectations are low,” Infante Green said in the interview. “If I didn’t have the chance to change schools, I don’t know how I would have ended up. So I work to make sure all kids have the opportunity to thrive.”

Massachusetts would present different challenges for Infante-Green. Schools there are considered the highest-performing in the country, and unlike in New York, the state runs some struggling districts directly.

The other candidates for the Massachusetts job, according to the Boston Herald, are Jeffrey Riley, who leads the state-run Lawrence Public Schools in central Massachusetts; and Penny Schwinn, chief deputy commissioner of academics at the Texas Education Agency. They were selected from 18 applicants and will undergo interviews in Boston next week.

Clarification (Jan. 17, 2018): This story has been updated to clarify the activities of Chiefs for Change, as well as to include Infante-Green’s participation in the Future Chiefs program.