leadership change

After sparing Harlem’s storied Wadleigh middle school from closure, Richard Carranza shakes up its leadership

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
A Wadleigh graduate addresses the crowd at a rally outside the school. Students, parents and community leaders spoke against the city's plans to close the Harlem performing arts school.

In one of his first moves as chancellor, Richard Carranza saved a politically connected performing arts school in Harlem from closure. Now, the education department is moving forward with a leadership shakeup at Wadleigh Secondary School for the Performing Arts in a bid to turn the school around.

Starting Monday, Kyleema Norman — a former principal who now works with low-performing schools in Brooklyn through the city’s Renewal turnaround program — will take the helm of Wadleigh on an interim basis, replacing Daisy Fontanez.

Norman’s task is a steep one. The middle school has long been considered low-performing and has had difficulty attracting students — enrolling fewer than a hundred students in recent years. Since 2014, not a single one of its middle schoolers was considered proficient in math on state tests, and Carranza has said the school’s performance is “not acceptable.”

But despite the school’s performance, Wadleigh has survived at least two attempts to shutter it, owing partly to strong political backing from the NAACP, the Harlem Chamber of Commerce, alumni, and elected officials.

In 2011, when the Bloomberg administration targeted the school for closure, famed philosopher Cornel West and then-public advocate Bill de Blasio rushed to the school’s aid. As mayor, de Blasio’s education department targeted the middle school for closure last year, but Wadleigh was spared after pushback from local officials and members of the school community.

“Chancellor Carranza is very clear that [the education department] is supporting us,” said Norman, the incoming interim principal, adding that she hopes that she is ultimately selected to stay. “I hope to prove myself to be someone of record, and a lasting leader of Wadleigh.”

The decision to save Wadleigh’s middle school could offer a hint that Carranza is more apt to give long-struggling schools a second chance instead of closing them. The schools chief will have to make more of those decisions in the coming year, especially among the 49 other remaining schools in the city’s controversial Renewal turnaround program.

But given Wadleigh’s political history and the fact that Carranza doesn’t yet have a long track record of making closure decisions in New York, it’s difficult to know whether Wadleigh offers any real clues about how Carranza will approach school closures in the future.

As part of the shakeup, the school will join a network of schools supported by New Visions for Public Schools, a nonprofit that helps support and supervise a group of schools. A separate middle school in the same building, Frederick Douglass Academy II, also receives support from New Visions, which will help foster collaboration between the two schools, officials said.

The high school will also receive additional funding for its arts programs, and the school will continue to be in the city’s Renewal program, which gives struggling schools extended learning time, access to additional teacher training, and a collaboration with a nonprofit organization.

Less clear is what benchmarks Wadleigh will be expected to reach for the shakeup to be considered a success. Education department spokesman Doug Cohen pointed to goals the school is supposed to reach as a member of the Renewal program for struggling schools.

Last school year, though, those benchmarks were set so low that Wadleigh’s middle school could actually perform worse on measures including student attendance and reading proficiency and still hit its goals.

Cohen said last year’s goals would remain in place, and, “we’re working with the principal and community to review the metrics and develop new, shared short-and long-term accountability measures that work best for the school.”

Gigs Taylor-Stephenson, president of Wadleigh’s parent association, said the leadership change has left her feeling optimistic.

“We hope that this change is for the best for our children and for the school,” she said, adding that she hopes the new principal brings a more consistent sense of school discipline in managing student behavior. In terms of academics, Taylor-Stephenson said, “We didn’t think expectations were set high enough, and without expectations being set, it was mediocrity.”

Norman emphasized her track record turning around struggling schools. As principal of Brooklyn’s Academy of Urban Planning, she helped usher in double-digit percentage increases in graduation and attendance rates, officials said. And she also noted her arts background, which includes training on the viola and experience with modern, jazz, tap, and African dance.

Aaron Pallas, a professor at Teachers College who has studied the city’s school turnaround efforts, said the leadership shakeup could make a difference, but that might not be enough.

“I think they’re putting a lot of weight on the change in leadership and the idea that a new principal can change the school,” Pallas said. But whether the school would face closure if it doesn’t start improving is far from clear.

“There are some schools that are Teflon coated,” Pallas said.

study says...

Can charter operators turn around district schools? In Atlanta, two are trying and finding extra challenges

A UNICEF Kid Power Event at Charles R. Drew Charter School in Atlanta, Georgia in 2016. (Photo by Marcus Ingram/Getty Images for UNICEF)

When Atlanta Public Schools decided to hand over control of one of its struggling elementary schools, the leaders of a small charter network raised their hands.

In its application to run the school, Kindezi leaders said it had posted strong results at its two charter schools and was ready to spread its model. But the job proved much more difficult than they expected.

The students at the turnaround school were far behind academically, and many were entering and exiting the school, making it tough to establish a new school culture.

“One of the things that we weren’t really prepared for was the level of trauma for a lot of our student population,” said Danielle Washington, the Kindezi turnaround principal. “Knowing superficially — looking at the demographics — what the environment was like [and] actually being in it is very different.”

“Frankly, organizationally, we weren’t ready to do it,” said Dean Leeper, Kindezi’s founder.

A new study on Atlanta’s turnaround efforts shows that Kindezi’s results were uneven, as were results at a few other Atlanta schools taken over by an outside operator.

The Kindezi school had some clear successes: large gains on math tests, as well as moderate improvements in reading. But students’ already-low science and social studies scores dropped sharply, and suspension rates spiked, too.

At three other schools run by another external operator, math scores also jumped — but so did suspensions, and scores in other subjects were flat.

The results come from just one or two years of data, and most agree that a successful turnaround takes more time. The same study also showed tepid results for an improvement strategy that kept the schools under district control.

Still, the mix of findings and reported struggles in Atlanta underscore the challenges of exporting charter models to new environments, especially existing schools. This charter takeover approach has taken root in a growing number of cities, including Camden, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, and San Antonio.

“If you’re going to use charters, you have to realize that even those that are experienced and seasoned are not going to enter into this [turnaround] work totally prepared,” said Joshua Glazer, a professor at George Washington University who has studied charter takeovers in Tennessee. “There is going to be a significant learning curve.”

The challenge: Two external groups, four struggling schools

Two local groups won Atlanta’s competitive application process to take over five schools the district considered low performing: Kindezi and Purpose Built Schools, a nonprofit connected to the Drew charter school.

They won backing from national philanthropy. Two of the schools got $325,000 start-up grants from the pro-charter Walton Family Foundation. (Walton is a funder of Chalkbeat.) The two turnaround groups also got money from RedefinED, a local nonprofit that recently received funding from the City Fund. Walton also paid $900,000 for the research firm Mathematica to study Atlanta’s turnaround strategies.

The four schools the researchers examined saw big changes after the external groups took over. Their teachers were no longer employed by the district, for one, and those who wanted to remain had to reapply for their jobs.

The schools, though, continued to enroll students from the neighborhood, keeping attendance boundaries intact — unlike the enrollment setup for most charter schools.

The results were all over the place.

After one year, Kindezi-school students in grades three through five jumped from the 29th percentile in the district in math to roughly the 43rd percentile — a big improvement. There was also an uptick in English scores.

But results on science and social studies exams (only administered to fifth-graders) fell precipitously compared to similar schools — dropping from the 24th to the 13th percentile in social studies, for instance.

Washington, the Kindezi principal, said that may be a result of her school’s choice to emphasize basic math and reading skills after realizing how far behind students were.

“We had to make some tough decisions on what to prioritize,” she said. “We definitely paid for it on the science and social studies end, but we were able to make some dents [in] reading.”

The Kindezi school also saw a sharp increase in suspension rates, though some staff members suggested that that might be because suspensions had previously been under-reported.

The three other schools — which followed the Drew charter model, with extra learning time and nonacademic support — also had mixed results. In year one, math scores increased and chronic absenteeism declined, compared to similar schools. There were no clear effects in three other subjects, though, and suspension rates jumped 8 percentage points.

In the first school taken over, math scores continued to improve in year two, but there were still no gains in other subjects. And, alarmingly, chronic absenteeism increased by 8 percentage points.

Turnaround leaders say challenges are greater than in charter schools

Barbara Preuss, who oversees principals at Purpose Built Schools, said her network had found that the students at turnaround schools were much different than the students they had previously served.

“Our children live in an environment where they experience a lot more trauma than children that are attending Drew charter,” she said. “We also are dealing with a high transiency rate, which the charter school does not have.”

In response, Preuss said the schools have brought therapists and social workers to schools; connected families to pro bono housing lawyers; and begun offering after school programs, providing dinners, and stocking food pantries. The schools have even directly employed two dozen parents to help with things like attendance and family events.

Preuss said the schools had seen attendance rates grow and student turnover and suspensions decline this year.

Washington said the Kindezi school had adapted as well, adding time for science and social studies in the second half of this year.

Leeper said the experience offers a lesson to other charter leaders.

“I do think some of the charter world … we underestimate the challenges that are faced in the traditional public schools,” he said. “It definitely is humbling.”

That sentiment, Glazer said, mirrored what he heard from charter leaders who had attempted takeovers in Tennessee. “That could be right off the pages of our transcripts from Memphis,” he said.

Atlanta’s district-focused turnaround strategy also didn’t produce major improvements

Having charter school operators take over struggling district schools has succeeded at raising test scores in New Orleans and in Boston. In Memphis, though, the strategy had no effect, even after five years.

Meanwhile, school turnarounds have proven difficult with or without charter schools.

Atlanta’s other turnaround strategy, beginning in the 2016-17 school year, flooded 13 district schools with additional support, including math and reading specialists, an extended school day or year, and coordinators to connect students with out-of-school support.

Results were uneven at those schools, too, the Mathematica study found, with bumps in math scores in year two but no other clear improvements.

“You can find examples of places that have successfully turned schools around other district management and you can find examples of places that have successfully turned around using charters,” said Brian Gill, one of the Mathematica researchers. “It’s not as if there is any clear indication that one of these approaches is superior to the other.”

Code of conduct

Tennessee’s ‘parent dress code’ bill clears first legislative hurdle

PHOTO: Chalkbeat/Marta W. Aldrich
The State Capitol in Nashville is home to the Tennessee General Assembly.

Every Tennessee school district would have to develop a code of conduct for parents and other school visitors under a bill that narrowly advanced out of a House subcommittee on Tuesday.

The measure aims to tamp down on problems that arise when visitors show up to school wearing inappropriate attire, using inappropriate language, playing loud music, or bringing other unwelcome behaviors on campus.

Rep. Antonio Parkinson

“We’re telling school districts to come up with a baseline level of behavior for any person who steps on campus,” whether it’s a parent, vendor, or guest, said Rep. Antonio Parkinson, a Memphis Democrat who is sponsoring the proposal along with Sen. Dolores Gresham, a Republican from Somerville.

“It’s all about contributing to an enhanced or better learning environment,” Parkinson said.

Parkinson has gotten national attention with his so-called “parent dress code” bill, which he filed after getting complaints from parents about sexually suggestive or gang-inspired clothing that other parents were wearing to school.

The bill passed 4-3, but not before several lawmakers questioned the proposed mandate, especially when school districts already can create a code of conduct for visitors if they see a need.

Rep. Jerry Sexton, a Republican from Bean Station, called the measure “overreach” by state government, and Rep. Ryan Williams, a Republican from Cookeville, agreed.

“I don’t like us telling locals to do something they can do anyway,” Williams said.

Parkinson emphasized the importance of having a process in place so that parents and other visitors understand what’s appropriate attire or behavior when they enter a school building.

The problem “is pervasive because nobody has told people what is expected. What we’re doing is more of an awareness campaign,” Parkinson said.

Rep. Mark White, who chairs the full House Education Committee where the bill is now headed, said he supports the idea.

“When I visit schools, it’s a shame that you have to address this because parents should know better,” White said, citing inappropriate clothing as the biggest problem. “I’ve seen too much of it, and it’s not a pretty sight.”

Rep. David Byrd added that the policy might also cut down on fights at sporting events on school campuses, even as others expressed concern that the proposal could open up school districts to even more problems.

“The reason we don’t have such a code of conduct is because the enforcement is questionable,” said Chuck Cagle, an attorney who represents the state superintendents group.

Tennessee law already requires school districts to develop a code of conduct for students.