Future of Schools

In State of the State address, Gov. Cuomo proposes $1 billion boost for New York schools and new funding formula

PHOTO: Office of the governor

Gov. Andrew Cuomo called Tuesday in his State of the State address for boosting school funding by $1 billion and establishing a new formula that would require districts to send certain dollars to specific needy schools.

Although Cuomo spent most of the education portion of the speech saying districts were not properly distributing state dollars to the most needy schools, he called for increasing funding by $230 million more than he did last year, for a total $27.7 billion. The move could be a nod toward the new legislature’s apparent commitment to increasing funding for school districts across the state, an issue many new lawmakers campaigned on. State Budget Director Robert F. Mujica Jr. said Cuomo’s administration acknowledges rising costs for school districts and wants to accounts for inflation. 

Though larger than his fiscal 2019 proposal, the governor’s plan is still $1.1 billion short of what state education policymakers have requested and suggests a substantially smaller boost in foundation aid, a formula that sends extra dollars to high-needs districts. The formula and whether it’s being sufficiently funded have been the subject of heated contention among education advocates, the governor’s office, and state policymakers for years, a debate that shows no signs of abating.

In response to the governor’s speech, the state’s top education officials said they are “extremely alarmed” with Cuomo’s recommended funding levels. The proposal “falls far short of what schools need to achieve equity, or even keep pace with inflation and demographic changes,” Commissioner MaryEllen Elia and Chancellor Betty Rosa said in an emailed statement.

The proposal increases foundation aid by $338 million, the same amount as last year (when the state was facing a larger state budget deficit). State policymakers have called for almost five times that amount (with a $4.9 billion phase-in over three years).

Cuomo, who earlier this month described calls to substantially increase foundation aid a “ghost of the past,” has steadfastly held that the formula was satisfied long ago and is no longer valid. An entire section of his budget book, released in conjunction with today’s address, is dedicated toward refuting the formula. On Tuesday, Cuomo highlighted a school funding transparency law passed last year, which requires districts to show how state dollars are distributed.

“The districts turned around and decided how to distribute the funds, and they did not distribute the funds to the poorer schools,” Cuomo said. “That assumption was flawed.”

His proposed formula would require districts to send a “significant portion” of their foundation aid increase toward their most underfunded, neediest schools, according to Cuomo’s written budget proposal. The formula would be based on a plan approved by state education officials.   

In New York City, a Chalkbeat analysis found there are funding disparities, which can amount to thousands of dollars per pupil, between schools, largely because of the Fair Student Funding Formula. It sends more dollars to schools with hard-to-serve students, like those with disabilities or those from low-income families. But many public education advocates say the additional dollars are still insufficient to address the need and don’t address the discrepancies in funding that can result from outside fundraising by affluent parents.

Several New York City Democratic lawmakers joined the Alliance for Quality Education, a union-backed advocacy group, to decry Cuomo’s education proposal. 

“It’s great to finally hear about equitable funding of public education from Governor Cuomo, but his paltry $338 million in Foundation Aid is an insult to our children,” said Sen. Robert Jackson, one of the plaintiffs in the 1993 lawsuit that helped create foundation aid. “Whatever plan he may craft to address funding disparities within districts does not address the now $4.1 billion that has been owed to struggling schools statewide for decades as a result of the state’s failure to uphold its legal obligation.”

Under Cuomo’s plans, charter schools would get $37 million in funding, which boosts per-pupil funding for the sector by 3.5 percent, about the same per-pupil boost as public schools.

Cuomo’s budget address comes at a turning point in the state legislature, as Democrats take control of the Senate, paving the way for a clear shift in education policy.

The executive budget calls for extending mayoral control of city schools by three years, decoupling state assessments from teacher evaluations and passing the New York DREAM Act, which would allow undocumented students to apply for in-state tuition assistance and college savings plans. Democratic lawmakers intend to pass both bills quickly.


Frustrations over principal turnover flare up at IPS School 43

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy
School 43

It began with a tame slideshow presentation about hiring a new principal at School 43. But the Wednesday night meeting soon spiraled into a venting session — as parents and teachers pleaded with Indianapolis Public Schools to send in more staff.

Bakari Posey, the principal of School 43, departed for another job last week in the latest upheaval at the school, which is also known as James Whitcomb Riley. The assistant principal, Endia Ellison, has taken over in an interim capacity, as the district searches for a new leader for the school, which has faced significant turnover in recent years.

“This school needs help,” said Natasha Milam, who has three children at School 43, which serves about 450 students in prekindergarten to eighth-grade. “We need you all to listen. And we need you all to hear us.”

Milam, who volunteers at the school, said that because the building does not have enough staff to handle behavior problems, students are suspended far too often — meaning students are at home doing chores or getting into trouble, instead of in class learning.

Many in the neighborhood had hoped Posey, who is from the community, would be able to turn the school around after the previous two school leaders left their posts just months into the job. But under Posey’s leadership, the school continued to struggle on state tests, with just 7 percent of students passing both the math and English exams last year.

And after two-and-a-half years on the job, Posey left and began working this week as assistant principal at Fall Creek Valley Middle School in Lawrence Township. In an email Thursday, Posey said that he left because he thought the position in Lawrence would help him grow professionally and it was closer to his home.

Posey also disputed the picture of School 43 as a campus in crisis. He said this school year, there hasn’t been “turmoil in the school in regards to student behavior,” suspensions were down, and the campus has been “very calm.” (Suspension numbers could not immediately be verified.) He also said that Indianapolis Public Schools provided “great support” to school staff.

Nonetheless, parents and teachers’ at the meeting Wednesday said the school has serious problems.

Ryesha Jackson, a 4th-grade teacher who has been at the school a little over a year, said there are not enough staff to help with student discipline problems. That makes it hard for educators to teach, she said.

“We have fights almost every day,” Jackson said. “I guess my question is, ‘What are we doing right now to support teachers?’”

School 43 is a neighborhood school, on the north side of the district. More than 75 percent of students there are black, and almost 70 percent are poor enough to qualify for free or reduced-price meals — about the district average.

Indianapolis Public Schools interim Superintendent Aleesia Johnson said district and school leaders would work together to develop a plan to address the urgent problems at School 43.

“But what I can’t give you right now is the plan for that help,” she said. “That takes time and coordination with the school staff.”

The district is gathering input about what school community members are looking for in a principal before posting a listing, officials said. Finalists will be interviewed by committees of parents, community members, and school and district staff. The goal is to name a new principal by April.

Also at Wednesday’s meeting was a small contingent from the IPS Community Coalition, a group that is often critical of the Indianapolis Public Schools administration, particularly the district’s partnerships with charter schools.

Michele Lorbieski, a resident from the north side who ran unsuccessfully for the Indianapolis Public Board with the support of the coalition last year, said the district cannot just rely on the next principal to fix the school.

“What I’d hoped to hear tonight was what the school district was doing to put things in place to stop this revolving door of principals,” she said.

District officials did not directly address why turnover has been so high among principals at School 43. But Brynn Kardash, a district official who recently began working with the school, said that the central office is doing more to support it this year.

School 43 was added this year to the transformation zone — an effort to help troubled schools that includes dedicated support and regular visits from a team at the central office, said Kardash, the district’s executive director of schools for the zone. Educators in the zone get additional training, extra planning time, and help analyzing student data, she said.

“The goal is to really support Ms. Ellison in work that she’s doing,” Kardash said, “which then leads to, hopefully, teachers feeling that support in the classroom.”

technical difficulties

This personalized learning program was supposed to boost math scores. It didn’t, new study finds

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
A student at I.S. 228 in Brooklyn does online work through Teach to One, a program that grew out of the iZone.

A program that Bill Gates once called “the future of math” didn’t improve state test scores at schools that adopted it, according to a new study.

The research examines Teach to One, a “personalized learning” program used in schools across 11 states and which has drawn support from a number of major funders, including the Gates Foundation, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, and Netflix co-founder Reed Hastings. (Gates and CZI are also funders of Chalkbeat.)

At five schools in Elizabeth, New Jersey, students who used Teach to One didn’t improve any faster than similar students who didn’t use the program, even after three years. The results underscore the limited evidence for claims that such technology programs can dramatically improve student learning, even as they have become magnets for philanthropic dollars.

“The original aspirations, that Teach to One programs were going to have huge positive effects on math scores — we can rule that out with these studies,” said Jonah Rockoff, a Columbia professor who studied an earlier iteration of the program.

Teach to One says its approach is designed to help students steadily learn math skills, regardless of how unprepared or advanced they are. Students spend time on a computer as well as with a teacher and working in small groups. Students receive individualized schedules each day based on their progress, and a computer program adapts the curriculum to students’ strengths and weaknesses in the form of a “playlist.”

New Classrooms, the organization behind Teach To One, suggests that the Elizabeth results aren’t the full story.

It points to a separate analysis released this week that looks at a broader group of schools — 14, from several districts — that used the program. That study shows Teach to One students making above-average gains on a test known as the MAP, which is taken on a computer with questions changing as students answer correctly or incorrectly.

New Classrooms co-founder Joel Rose suggested in a statement that those computer-adaptive tests capture something that state tests can miss: students’ progress.

“What seems to be emerging is a real tension in math between approaches focused on long-term academic growth and state accountability systems,” he said.

Rockoff said there might be something to New Classroom’s argument that the study using adaptive test is better able to showcase students’ gains. “If [students] are at a grade four level but they’re in grade six, teaching them grade four material is going to hurt them on the state test,” he said.

But the author of the second study, Jesse Margolis, and a number of other researchers who spoke to Chalkbeat note that it cannot show whether Teach to One caused any of the students’ gains, though — a major limitation.

“While this study cannot establish causality, it is encouraging,” Margolis wrote. (The New Jersey study is better able to establish cause and effect, but it also has limitations and does not rely on random assignment.)

The New Jersey study isn’t the first to show that Teach to One didn’t improve test scores: so did Rockoff’s 2015 report on three New York City middle schools that looked at both state and MAP tests.

One possible explanation is that Teach to One is helpful to students in some places but not others. Margolis said his study examined the same five Elizabeth schools as the Columbia study and also found minimal gains there, but that schools elsewhere seemed to see larger improvements.

Researcher John Pane of RAND, a leader in studying personalized learning, says the results are important to understanding a field with limited research to date.

“Because we have so little evidence on personalized learning,” he said, “every data point can be helpful for us to start triangulating and piecing together what works and what doesn’t work.”